Nanotechnology

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Have you ever find yourself wondering what nanotechnology is? Well you are a few inches away from the answer. scroll down and see…   Well then Nanotechnology is the science and technology of building devices, such as electronic circuits, from single atoms and molecules, invented by a brilliant American physicist Richard Feynman (1918–1988) in 1959. Nanotechnology controls matter on an atomic level, modifying its effects to achieve desired results. Its uses and applications are therefore extremely numerous.

Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology.In the “bottom-up” approach, materials and devices are built from molecular components which assemble themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition.In the “top-down” approach, nano-objects are constructed from larger entities without atomic-level control

The impetus for nanotechnology comes from a renewed interest in colloidal science, coupled with a new generation of analytical tools such as the atomic force microscope (AFM), and the scanning tunneling microscope (STM).

Combined with refined processes such as electron beam lithography and molecular beam epitaxy, these instruments allow the deliberate manipulation of nanostructures, and led to the observation of novel phenomena. Examples of nanotechnology in modern use are the manufacture of polymers based on molecular structure, and the design of computer chip layouts based on surface science.

Despite the great promise of numerous nanotechnologies such as quantum dots and nanotubes, real commercial applications have mainly used the advantages of colloidal nanoparticles in bulk form, such as suntan lotion, cosmetics, protective coatings, and stain resistant clothing. Modern synthetic chemistry has reached the point where it is possible to prepare small molecules to almost any structure.

These methods are used today to produce a wide variety of useful chemicals such as pharmaceuticals or commercial polymers.

This ability raises the question of extending this kind of control to the next-larger level, seeking methods to assemble these single molecules into supramolecular assemblies consisting of many molecules arranged in a well defined manner. These approaches utilize the concepts of molecular self-assembly and/or supramolecular chemistry to automatically arrange themselves into some useful conformation through a bottom-up approach.

The concept of molecular recognition is especially important: molecules can be designed so that a specific conformation or arrangement is favored due to non-covalent intermolecular forces.

The Watson-Crick basepairing rules are a direct result of this, as is the specificity of an enzyme being targeted to a single substrate, or the specific folding of the protein itself.

Thus, two or more components can be designed to be complementary and mutually attractive so that they make a more complex and useful whole.

For more information about the topic Nanotechnology, read the full article at Wikipedia.org, or see the following related articles:

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